Formats for Footnotes and Bibliography

Table of Contents

  1. General Comments About Formats
  2. Comments About the General Rules for the Turabian Style
  3. Books
  4. Chapters and Essays in Edited Books
  5. Articles in Journals
  6. Films
  7. Material from the Internet
  8. Content Notes
  9. Other Model Examples
  10. Model Bibliography

1. General Comments About Formats

1.1 Manual of Style. All professors in the Department of Religious Studies require that religious studies majors and graduate students follow the Turabian Manual when writing papers in religious studies courses. You are expected to buy a copy of Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations. 7th revised edition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).

1.2 General format for all papers. Unless given specific instructions to the contrary, format all papers in a standard font such as 12 point Times Roman, doubled spaced, with one-inch margins (top, bottom, left, and right). Do not justify the right-hand margin because that can create awkward spacing between words.

Single-space and block indent quotations of more than four lines. Do not put quotations marks at the beginning and end of a block quote, as you do in a short quotation. The block indentation lets your reader know that it is a direct quotation..

When you submit a multiple-paged paper, either staple it in the upper left hand corner or bind it in a clear plastic folder, as indicated by the individual professor. Typically a major research paper will include a formal cover sheet that includes the title of the paper, student’s name, course information, professor’s name, Department of Religious Studies, UNC Charlotte, and the date the paper is submitted. Again, if the instructor gives specific instructions for a paper, follow those instructions.

Always number the pages of a multiple-paged document. If the paper has a title page, the title page counts as the first page, but the number is not shown on it.

1.3 Title. Always give your paper a title and place it at the beginning of the paper. Even short papers should have a title to give your reader a quick indication of what the paper is about. Also, creating a title forces you to think about your main point. A specific title that reflects the main point of the paper is preferred over a clever title.

1.4 Academic Integrity. You must always give credit for quotations of material written by someone else. This includes both the use of quotations marks, or block quotation format, and formal documentation of the source with a footnote. If you are paraphrasing material written by someone else, you do not use quotation marks, but you still must give credit to the source of your information by use of a footnote. This applies as equally to material taken from the Internet as it does for material taken from a print source.


2. Comments About the General Rules for the Turabian Style

2.1 General Format of bibliographic entries and footnotes. There are two formats included in the Turabian Manual. One is the footnote and bibliography format and the other is the parenthetical reference and the reference list or works cited. In religious studies papers you are to use only the footnote and bibliography format.

You have the same information in the corresponding footnote, but the syntax is different.

Commas are used for separators rather than periods, and the first word following a comma is not capitalized unless it is a title or a proper name. For page numbers, indicate the number only and do not use “page” or “p.” All footnotes end with a period.

There is a basic syntax that applies to entries in a bibliography. There are usually three or four parts, and each part is separated by a period. The first word after a period is capitalized, just like sentences. All bibliographical entries end with a period.

Another difference between bibliographical entries and footnotes is the name order. In the bibliography the last name comes first because the bibliography is alphabetized. In the footnote the first name comes first.

2.2 Types of footnotes. There are three types of footnotes: primary footnotes, subsequent footnotes, and content footnotes.

a. Primary footnotes. The first time a work is referenced in a paper, the footnote contains all of the relevant information about the work. In this Writing Guide, the model example footnote are in their primary form.

b. Subsequent footnotes. After the first reference to a source, all subsequent references to that same source are given in a short form. Usually you give the last name of the author, a short form of the title, and the page number.

Here is an example footnote followed by its form as a subsequent footnote:

1. Ann Burlein, Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge (Durham: Duke University Press, 2002), 14.

2. [Intervening footnote referencing a different source.]

3. Burlein, Lift High the Cross, 23-24.

4. Ibid., 57.

If the footnote immediately before makes reference to the same source, use Ibid., which is the abbreviation for the Latin word ibidem (in the same place). Since it is an abbreviation, always follow it with a period. Footnote 4 above is a reference to Lift High the Cross since that was the immediately preceding reference.

c. Content footnotes. In addition to making citations, footnotes can also be used to add additional comments you want to include in the essay but do not want to include in the main body of the text. This can be a useful way to include additional information without breaking the flow of your argument in the main text. An example of a content footnote is found later in this manual.

2.3 Other general rules.

Make sure you have given enough information that will allow your reader to find the source you are documenting.

Be consistent with your format.

Titles of books and films are underlined or put in italics, without quotation marks.

Titles of journal articles and chapters in books are placed in quotation marks.

The heading for the alphabetical list of sources at the end of a footnoted paper is Bibliography. Do not use Works Cited because that is used for a parenthetical reference system rather than footnoted system.

In a short paper devoted to the analysis of one book or article, the instructor may give you special instructions to indicate page numbers in parentheses right after any quotes from the book. But if you are not given special instructions, use footnotes.

When you use the automatic footnote feature of your computer, it may begin the footnote with a superscripted number or with a regular number followed by a period, depending on which word processor you are using. Either style is acceptable. The examples in this manual use the regular number followed by a period.

2.4 Items you need to memorize.

You are not expected to memorize all the information about the exact forms of footnotes and bibliographical entries—you can look up the different formats in this Writing Guideline to make sure you have your references formatted correctly. There are, however, several general points that you should know without having to consult the Writing Guidelines or the Turabian manual.

Memorize the following:

  • Titles of books and films are in italics, and titles of articles and chapters are in quotes.
  • Do not put ‘page’ or ‘p.’ in front of page numbers—all you need are the numbers.
  • When you cite an Internet source be sure to add a sentence at the end of the footnote that indicates the credibility of the author, if known, or otherwise the status of the organization that sponsors the Internet site. (See more details below under “Material from the Internet.”)
  • End every footnote and bibliographical entry with a period.
  • Do not rely too heavily on quotations and always place your quotations in a context for your reader. Do not have any floating quotations. (See more in Part II.)

3. Books by One or by Multiple Authors

The basic format for a footnote referencing a book by one author is:

1. First name Last name, Title of Book (City: Publisher, date), #.

The basic format for a bibliographical entry for a book is:

Last name, First name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, date.

Book by one author – examples footnote format

1. Ann Burlein, Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge (Durham: Duke University Press, 2002), 14.

2. Sean McCloud, Making the American Religious Fringe: Exotics, Subversives, and Journalists, 1955-1993 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina University Press, 2004), 163.

Book by one author – examples of bibliographical format

Burlein, Ann. Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

McCloud, Sean. Making the American Religious Fringe: Exotics, Subversives, and Journalists, 1955-1993. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina University Press, 2004.

Book by two authors – footnote format

3. James D. Tabor and Eugene V. Gallagher, Why Waco?: Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 56-57.

Book by two authors – bibliographical format

Tabor, James D. and Eugene V. Gallagher. Why Waco?: Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Translated book – footnote format

4. Emmanuel Levinas, New Talmudic Readings, trans. Richard A. Cohen (Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1999), 145.

Translated book – bibliographical format

Levinas, Emmanuel. New Talmudic Readings. Translated by Richard A. Cohen. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1999.

The basic separator in a bibliographical entry is a period rather than a comma. The first word after a period separator is capitalized just like a new sentence after a period. For more examples, see the Model Bibliography. All of the works that are used for footnote examples are also included in the Model Bibliography.


4. Chapters and Essays in Edited Books

The basic format for a footnote referencing an article or chapter in an edited book is:

1. First name Last name, “Title of Article,” in Title of Book, ed. First name Last Name (City: Publisher, date), #.

The basic separator in a footnote is a comma, and the first word after a comma is not capitalized unless it is a proper name.

The basic format for a bibliographical entry for an article or chapter in an edited book is:

Last name, First name. “Title of the Article.” In Title of Book, ed. First name Last name, ##-##. City: Publisher, date.

The basic separator in a bibliographical entry is a period, and the first word after a period is capitalized just like the first word in a next sentence after a period Note that the inclusive page numbers of the entire article or chapter are included in the bibliographical entry.

Edited books – examples of footnote format

1. Kathryn Johnson, “The Lessons of the Garden: An Examination of the Scriptural Legacy of Islam,” in Living Traditions of the Bible, ed. James E. Bowley (St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1999), 108.

2. Reuven Firestone, “The Qur’ān and the Bible: Some Modern Studies of Their Relationship,” in Bible and Qur’an: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality, ed. John C. Reeves (Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003), 11.

Edited books – examples of bibliographical format

Johnson, Kathryn. “The Lessons of the Garden: An Examination of the Scriptural Legacy of Islam.” In Living Traditions of the Bible, edited by James E. Bowley, 103-31. St. Louis: Chalice Press,1999.

Firestone, Reuven. “The Qur’ān and the Bible: Some Modern Studies of Their Relationship.” in Bible and Qur’ān: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality, edited by John C. Reeves, 1-22. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.

Note: If you are citing text written by the editor of the book, the footnote references the editor, and the listing in the bibliography is placed under the editor’s name.

If you are citing an article written by a contributor other than the editor, the footnote references the author of the article, and the book is listed in the bibliography under the contributor’s name rather than the editor’s name.


5. Articles in Journals

The basic format referencing an article in a journal is:

1. First name Last name, “Title of Article,” Name of Journal volume # (year) : #.

The basic format for a bibliographical entry for an article in a journal is:

Last name, First name. “Title of Article.” Name of Journal. volume # (year) : ##-##.

Note that the inclusive page numbers of the entire article are included in the bibliographical entry.

Journal Article – Examples of footnote format

1. John C. Reeves, “Exploring the Afterlife of Jewish Pseudepigrapha in Medieval Near Eastern Religious Traditions: Some Initial Soundings,” Journal for the Study of Judaism 30 (1999) : 150.

2. James D. Tabor, “Why 2K? The Biblical Roots of Millennialism,” Bible Review 15.6 (1999) : 26.

Journal Article – Examples of bibliographical format

Reeves, John C. “Exploring the Afterlife of Jewish Pseudepigrapha in Medieval Near Eastern Religious Traditions: Some Initial Soundings.” Journal for the Study of Judaism 30 (1999) : 148-177.

Tabor, James D. “Why 2K? The Biblical Roots of Millennialism.” Bible Review 15.6 (1999) : 16-27, 44-45.


6. Films

The basic format for a footnote referencing a film is:

1. First name Last name, director, Film Title, Film Studio, date, medium.

Films – Examples of footnote format

1. Robert Duvall, director, The Apostle, October Films, 1997, DVD.

2. Andy Wachowski and Larry Wachowski, directors, The Matrix, Warner Bros., 1999, videocassette.

Films – Examples of bibliographical format

Duvall, Robert, director. The Apostle. October Films, 1997. DVD.

Wachowski, Andy and Larry Wachowski, directors. The Matrix. Warner Bros., 1999. Videocassette.


7. Material from the Internet

Important Note: Do not rely heavily on the Internet because these sources are often unedited and transitory, whereas, print sources are usually edited and more reliable.

Special requirement of the Department of Religious Studies: When you cite information from the Internet that is not from an edited, online scholarly journal or a well-known source such as the Encyclopedia Britannica or the New York Times, you are to extend the footnote with information about the author or the institution if the author is not known. If you cannot figure out the identity of the author or of the institution responsible for the website, you should not use it as a research resource.

The basic format for a footnote referencing material on the Internet is:

1. First name Last name, “Title,” Organization or Online Publication, http://URL (accessed date). Extended information about the author or source.

The basic format for a bibliographic entry for the Internet is:

Last Name, First Name. “Title.” Organization or Online Publication. \ http://URL (accessed date).

Internet – Examples of footnote format

1. John C. Reeves, “Shahrastānī on the Manichaeans,” The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, http://www.uncc.edu/jcreeves/shahra_on_manichaeans.htm (accessed January 29, 2004). John C. Reeves is the Blumenthal Professor of Judaic Studies at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte.

2. Chris Bongie, “Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature,” Postmodern Culture 14.1 (2003), http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/current.issue/14.1bongie.html (accessed January 20, 2005). Chris Bongie is Professor of English at Queen's University in New York.

Also note: Do not underline the URL address (remove the hyperlink). If URL must continue on the next line, manually break it right after a slash mark.

Internet – Examples of bibliographical format

Bongie, Chris. “Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature.” Postmodern Culture 14.1 2003. http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/current.issue/14.1bongie.html (accessed January 20, 2005).

Reeves, John C. “Shahrastānī on the Manichaeans.” The University of North Carolina at Charlotte. http://www.uncc.edu/jcreeves/shahra_on_manichaeans.htm (accessed January 29, 2004).


8. Content Notes

In addition to making citations, footnotes can also be used to add additional comments that you do not want to include in the main text. Here is an example from Ann Burlein, Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge (Durham: Duke University Press), 228. In the context of discussing Pete Peters and biblical interpretation in the main body of her text, Dr. Burlein amplifies her comments in footnote 26.

26. Peters is more liberal in his literalism than many. He ridicules those who, claiming that its archaic language renders it closer to God, read only the King James Version. Peters acknowledges the mediated nature of translations. He uses multiple translations as well as an interlinear version that refers to the Greek and Hebrew text. He most often uses the North American Standard version because it is the most “relevant” translation, as it uses the language Americans speak. Unless otherwise noted, Bible references in this case study are taken from the North American Standard.


9. Other Model Examples

There are, of course, many other types of sources that are not included in the above examples, such as encyclopedias, newspapers, interviews, and videos. The format for these sources are in the Turabian Manual.

If you find yourself frequently having to look up a particular form in the Turabian Manual, add your own model example of the form in the space below.

Important Tip: Pages 143-145 in the 7th edition of the Turabian Manual provides a chart of the most commonly used types of footnote and bibliography entries. In chapter 17 of the manual you will find more details and examples of specific types not covered in this web version.


10. Model Bibliography Corresponding to the Example Footnotes

Bibliography

Bongie, Chris. “Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature.” Postmodern Culture 14.1 2003. http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/current.issue/14.1bongie.html (accessed January 20, 2005).

Burlein, Ann. Lift High the Cross: Where White Supremacy and the Christian Right Converge. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.

Cohen, Richard A. Elevations: The Height of the Good in Rosenzweig and Levinas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.

________. Ethics, Exegesis and Philosophy: Interpretation After Levinas. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Duvall, Robert, director. The Apostle. October Films, 1997. DVD.

Firestone, Reuven. “The Qur’ān and the Bible: Some Modern Studies of Their Relationship.” In Bible and Qur’ān: Essays in Scriptural Intertextuality, ed. John C. Reeves, 1-22. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.

Johnson, Kathryn. “The Lessons of the Garden: An Examination of the Scriptural Legacy of Islam.” In Living Traditions of the Bible, ed. James E. Bowley, 103-31. St. Louis: Chalice Press, 1999.

Levinas, Emmanuel. New Talmudic Readings. Translated by Richard A. Cohen. Pittsburgh: Duquesne University Press, 1999.

McCloud, Sean. Making the American Religious Fringe: Exotics, Subversives, and Journalists, 1955-1993. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina University Press, 2004.

Meyer, Jeffrey F. Myths in Stone: Religious Dimensions of Washington, D.C. Berkley: University of California Press, 2001.

Reeves, John C. “Exploring the Afterlife of Jewish Pseudepigrapha in Medieval Near Eastern Religious Traditions: Some Initial Soundings.” Journal for the Study of Judaism 30 (1999) : 148-177.

________. “Shahrastānī on the Manichaeans.” The University of North Carolina at Charlotte. http://www.uncc.edu/jcreeves/shahra_on_manichaeans.htm (accessed January 29, 2004.

________, ed. Tracing the Threads: Studies in the Vitality of Jewish Pseudepigrapha. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1994.

Robinson, Joanne Maguire. Nobility and Annihilation in Marguerite Porete’s “Mirror of Simple Souls.” Albany: State University of New York Press, 2001.

Tabor, James D. “Why 2K? The Biblical Roots of Millennialism.” Bible Review 15.6 (1999) : 16-27, 44-45.

Tabor, James D. and Eugene V. Gallagher. Why Waco?: Cults and the Battle for Religious Freedom in America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Wachowski, Andy and Larry Wachowski, directors. The Matrix. Warner Bros., 1999. Videocassette.